Music Education
  Shopping Stores
  Auctions
  Audio Electronics
  Books
  Business
  CDs
  Concert Tickets
  Downloads
  DVDs
  Magazines
  Memorabilia
  MP3 Players
  Musical Instruments
  P2P File Sharing
  Pro Audio Recording
  Promotion
  SEO Search Ranking
  Sheet Music
  Video Games
  Videos
   
  Artists
  Bands
  Biography
  Blogs
  Charts
  Education
  Forums
  Free Music
  Genres
  Guitar Tabs
  Lyrics
  MySpace Friendster
  News
  Newsletter
  Personals
  Radio
  Resources
  Reviews
  Ringtones
  Shopping
  Web Directory
   
  About Music.us
  Affiliate Program
  Contact Us
  Link To Us
  Marketing Advertising
  Music Industry
  Partners



Booker T. Washington

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/61/Btwashington.jpg
Booker T. Washington


Booker Talifero (T.) Washington (April 5, 1856 - November 15, 1915) was an African-American educator born into slavery at the community of Hale's Ford in Franklin County, Virginia.

He became a leading educator and in later years, was a prominent spokesperson for African-American citizens of the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century

Education

Booker T. Washington was born in the Piedmont region of southern Virginia in the tiny community of Hale's Ford in Franklin County, about 35 miles southeast of Roanoke, Virginia.

After the American Civil War, when the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced, he worked with his mother Jane as a salt-packer in a West Virginia facility, and, when he could, attended school.

At 16, he entered the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, now Hampton University, in Virginia, a school intended to train black teachers.

Tuskegee, George Washington Carver

Booker T. Washington later founded and served as president of what is now Tuskegee University, an academic and vocational school for blacks during Reconstruction. He was to become one of America's foremost educators of his time. He also recruited George Washington Carver to teach and conduct research at Tuskegee.

Politics

Active in politics, he was routinely consulted by Congressmen and Presidents about the appointment of blacks to political positions. He worked and socialized with many white politicians and notables. He argued that self-reliance was the key to improved conditions for blacks in the U.S. However, for his advice to blacks to "compromise" and accept segregation, other black activists of the time, such as W. E. B. DuBois, labeled him an "accomodator". It should be allowed, however, that despite not condemning Jim Crow publicly, Washington privately contributed funds for legal challenges against segregation.

Henry H. Rogers: friend and benefactor

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/28/Henry_h_rogers_bw_portrait.jpg
Henry Huttleston Rogers 1840-1909


Around 1894, Dr. Washington developed a friendship with millionaire industrialist and philanthropist Henry Huttleston Rogers. The latter had attended one of his speeches in New York City, and had been surprised that no one had "passed the hat" afterwords. Rogers had risen from a working-class family in a small town to become a partner of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust. He was one of the wealthiest men in the world.

Despite his great wealth, and reputation for tough business dealings, Rogers was apparently both a modest and generous man. Dr. Washington became a frequent visitor to Rogers' office, to Rogers' 85-room mansion in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, and was an honored guest aboard Rogers' yacht Kanawha. Their friendship extended over a period of 15 years.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/46/BookerTWashington1909VAVWtour.jpg
Handbill from 1909 Tour of southern Virginia and West Virginia


Among many other enterprises, Rogers was the builder of the Virginian Railway, completed in 1909. Although Rogers had died suddenly a few weeks earlier, in June 1909, Dr. Washington went on a previously arranged speaking tour along the newly completed Virginian Railway. He rode in Rogers' personal rail car, "Dixie", making speeches at many locations over a 7-day period.

Dr. Washington told his audiences that his recently departed friend had urged him to make the trip and see what could be done to improve relations between the races and economic conditions for African-Americans along the route of the new railway, which touched many previously isolated communities in the southern portions of Virginia and West Virginia. Some of the places where Dr. Washington spoke on the tour were (in order of the tour stops), Newport News, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lawrenceville, Kenbridge, Victoria, Charlotte Courthouse, Roanoke, Salem, and Christiansburg in Virginia, and Princeton, Mullens, Page, and Deepwater in West Virginia. One of his trip companions reported that they had received a strong and favorable welcome from both white and African-American citizens all along the tour route.

It was only after his death that Dr. Washington said he felt compelled to revealing publicly some of the extent of Rogers' contributions. These, he said, were at that very time, funding the operation of at least 65 small country schools for the education and betterment of African-Americans in Virginia and other portions of the South, all unknown to the recipients. Known only to a few trustees, Rogers had also generously provided support to institutions of higher education.

Dr. Washington later wrote that Rogers had encouraged projects with at least partial matching funds, as that way, the gifts would help fund even greater work and the recipients would have a stake in knowing that they were helping themselves through their own hard work and sacrifice.

"Up from Slavery", invitation to the White House

His autobiography, Up from Slavery, published in 1901, was a bestseller. He was also the first African-American ever invited to the White House as the guest of a President – which led to a scandal for the inviting President, Theodore Roosevelt.

"Think about it: We went into slavery pagans; we came out Christians. We went into slavery pieces of property; we came out American citizens. We went into slavery with chains clanking about our wrists; we came out with the American ballot in our hands... Notwithstanding the cruelty and moral wrong of slavery, we are in a stronger and more hopeful condition, materially, intellectually, morally, and religiously, than is true of an equal number of black people in any other portion of the globe." – from Up From Slavery

Honors and memorials

For his contributions to American society, Booker T. Washington was granted honorary degrees from Harvard University and Dartmouth College and on April 5, 1956, the house where he was born in Hardy, Virginia was designated a United States National Monument. Additionally, the first coin to feature an African-American was the Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar that was minted by the U.S. Mint from 1946 to 1951. On April 7, 1940, Booker T. Washington became the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.

Writings

  • "The Awakening of the Negro," The Atlantic Monthly, 78 (September, 1896).
  • "The Case of the Negro," The Atlantic Monthly, 84 (November, 1899).
  • Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (1901) - ISBN 0451527542

See also: Slave narrative

External links

2005 Music Entertainment Network. A Cyprus Roussos Music Entertainment Company. All Rights Reserved.

Articles from Wikipedia Encyclopedia are licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. You may copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license. You must provide a link to http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. All trademarks and service marks including Napster, Rio MP3 Player, iRock, Creative MP3 Player, iRiver, Apple iPod Portable MP3 Players + iTunes, eMusic, Guitar Center Musicians Friend, Zzounds Musical Instrument Equipment Store, BMG Music Service, Columbia House DVD Club, eBay, Amazon, Netflix, Jamster, Gamefly, Friendster, Music123 Musical Instruments, Billboard, MTV, Yahoo Launch, Overture Yahoo Search Marketing, MusicMatch, Kazaa, Kazaa Lite, Morpheus software, Real Rhapsody, Bose, Sheet Music Plus, Billboard Magazine, Rolling Stone Magazine, Walmart Downloads, Barnes and Noble book store, CDUniverse, Tower Records, MSN Music, MySpace, Limewire, WinMX, Google Adsense, Alibris, TicketsNow, MusicSpace, uBid are property of their respective owners. Music.us has no affiliation with MySpace or Friendster, but offers alternative services. Disclaimer: Uploading or downloading of copyrighted works without permission or authorization of copyright holders may be illegal and subject to civil or criminal liability and penalties. Please buy music and refrain from any illegal downloading activity. User submitted free content, including Wikipedia encyclopedia or modification thereof by end users, do not reflect the views and opinions of Music.us and are for educational and research development purposes. Our website offers advanced search for bands and artists bio and albums and browse options for artist band biographies resources and information. We offer blogs and community building tools for authors, bands and users. The Music.us Entertainment Network is web's most comprehensive one-stop shopping, community networking and education site. Find song lyrics, guitar tablature, posters, ring tones, free MP3 downloads and hourly updating news feeds on musicians and any genre style including rock, pop, hip hop, country, christian, rap, classical, folk, dance, latin, R and B, blues, punk, heavy metal, alternative, guitar, bass, drums, gospel, wedding, arabic, jazz, soundtrack, world, reggae, soul and more. Privacy Policy - Site Map - MP3 - Music Downloads - Song Lyrics