Duke of Hamilton
The Duke of Hamilton is a title in the Peerage of Scotland created in 1643. The Duke of Hamilton was created Duke of Brandon in 1711, making the holder one of the five people currently to hold two different dukedoms, the others being the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, the Duke of Argyll (who holds two dukedoms named Argyll), and the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon. Historically, several other individuals have held two separate dukedoms, including Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme and John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll and 1st Duke of Greenwich.
The Duke of Hamilton is one of the most ennobled individuals in the United Kingdom, holding, in addition to the Dukedoms, nine subsidiary titles. They are: Marquess of Douglas (created 1633), Marquess of Clydesdale (1643), Earl of Angus (1389), Earl of Arran, Lanark and Cambridge (1643), Lord Abernathy and Jedburgh Forest (1633), Lord Polmont (1643), Lord Machanshire (1643), Lord Aven and Innerdale (1643) and Baron Dutton (1711). The Duke's eldest son and heir uses the courtesy title Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale. The Dukedom of Brandon and the Barony of Dutton are in the peerage of Great Britain; all other titles are in the peerage of Scotland.
Baron of Cadzow
Gilbert de Hameldun is recorded as witnessing a charter confirming the gift of the church at Cragyn to the Abbey of Paisley in 1271. His ancestry is uncertain but he was probably the son of William de Hamilton (third son of Robert, 3rd Earl of Leicester) and Mary of Strathearn. Gilbert de Hameldun married Isabella Randolph, daughter of Thomas Randolph, of Strathdon, Chamberlain of Scotland. His heir was Walter fitz Gilbert de Hambledon (c.1250-bef.1336). Walter fitz Gilbert was governor of Bothwell Castle for the English crown but during Wars of Scottish Independence he sided with Robert the Bruce fighting with him at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Sometime between 1315 and 1329, Robert the Bruce knighted him and granted him lands in Renfrewshire, the Lothians and the barony of Cadzow (now called Hamilton in Lanarkshire) where he began construction of Cadzow Castle. The barony had previously belonged to John de Comyn who had been murdered by Robert the Bruce.
The 1st Baron was succeeded by his son David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert (c.1310-1374/1378). He was a supporter of David II and fought at the Battle of Neville's Cross (Battle of Durham) where he was captured along with his king. His son David Hamilton, 3rd Baron of Cadzow (c.1333-c.1392) was the first to establish Hamilton as the family name. David Hamilton's son, John Hamilton (?-bef. 1410) became the 4th baron and was in turn succeeded by his son James Hamilton, 5th Baron of Cadzow (?-bef. 1441).
Lord Hamilton and Earl of Arran
In 1445 the 5th Baron's son and heir James Hamilton, was created a Lord of Parliament and became James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton (?-1479). He married Mary Stewart, daughter of King James II in about 1474. In 1490, their son James Hamilton (c.1475-1529) who was aged 15, married Elizabeth, the 13-year-old widow of Thomas Hay of Hoprew. But it was later discovered that Thomas Hay was actually still alive and the marriage was annulled. James became privy councillor to James IV and helped arrange the marriage of the James IV to Princess Margaret Tudor of England. As a reward he was created him Earl of Arran in 1503. The Earl's second marriage to Janet Beaton (bef. 1499-1522) produced his heir James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (1515-1575). The 2nd earl was chosen as Regent of Scotland between 1542 and 1554 and guardian of the young Mary, Queen of Scots. He was created Duc de Châtellerault of France in 1548.
The 2nd earl was succeeded by his eldest son James Hamilton (1533/1538-1609) who had been proposed as a husband to Queen Elizabeth of England in 1561. In 1562 he was declared insane and in 1581 he resigned the Earldom to James Stewart of Bothwellhaugh. In 1586 his resignation was ruled by the Court of Session to be the act of a madman and his honours were restored.
Earl of Angus, Marquess and Duke of Hamilton
The 3rd earl's younger brother John Hamilton (c.1535-1604) was appointed to administer his brother's estates. He was created Marquess of Hamilton and Lord Aven on 17 April 1599. His son James Hamilton (1589-1625) was created 1st Lord Aberbrothwick in the peerage of Scotland on 5 May 1608. Upon the death of his uncle in 1609 he became the 4th Earl of Arran and the 5th Lord Hamilton. He was created Earl of Cambridge and Baron of Innerdale in the peerage of England on 16 June 1619. His son James Hamilton (1606-1649) was created Duke of Hamilton, Marquess of Clydesdale, Earl of Arran and Cambridge and Lord Aven and Innerdale 12 April 1643. His son Charles Earl of Arran died young and the duke's titles passed to his brother William Hamilton (1616-1651) who had already been created Earl of Lanark and, Lord Machansyre and Polmont in the peerage of Scotland on 31 March 1639. Upon his death, with no male heirs to claim the titles, the Earldom of Arran became dormant. All of the other titles in the peerages of England and Scotland that had been granted after 1643 became extinct. The dukedom and the other minor titles devolved upon the 1st Duke's eldest surviving daughter Anne (c. 1631-1716), who became duchess of Hamilton in her own right.
The later dukes
The 1st Earl of Selkirk's eldest son James Hamilton (1658-1712) was known as the Earl of Arran until 9 July 1698 when his mother, Anne Hamilton, abdicated her titles of Duchess of Hamilton, Marquesses of Clydesdale, Lady Aven and Innerdale, Countess of Arran and Cambridge, Countess of Lanark and Lady Machansyre and Polmont. He became the 4th Duke of Hamilton. He was created Duke of Brandon and Baron of Duttonin the peerage of Great Britain on 10 September 1711, and famously killed in duel with Lord Mohun (who also died) in Hyde Park on 15 November 1712.
The 4th Duke's son James Douglas (1703-1743) was succeeded by his son James Douglas-Hamilton (1724-1758) and he by his son James George Douglas-Hamilton(1755-1769) who became the 7th Duke of Hamilton upon his father's death. In 1761 the 7th Duke's distant cousin, the 3rd Marquess of Douglas, died without an heir and the Duke received his titles becoming the 4th Earl of Angus, 4th Lord Abernethy and Jedburgh Forest and 4th Marquess of Douglas. He died without issue and was succeeded by his brother Douglas Douglas-Hamilton(1756-1799). Douglas Douglas-Hamilton left no sons and the title passed back to his uncle, the 6th Duke's brother, Archibald Douglas-Hamilton(1740-1819) who became the 9th Duke of Hamilton. He was succeeded by his son Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, (1767-1852) and then by his son William Alexander Anthony Archibald Douglas-Hamilton(1811-1863). The 11th Duke's son William Alexander Louis Stephen Douglas-Hamilton (1845-1895) died without a male heir and the title of 13th Duke of Hamilton passed to his distant cousin Alfred Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1862-1940) who was descended from the 4th Duke of Hamilton. The 13th duke's son Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1903-1973) became the 14th Duke of Hamilton and upon his death his son Angus Alan Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (born 1938) became the 15h Duke of Hamilton.
Feudal Barons of Cadzow (c. 1315)
- Walter fitz Gilbert de Hambledon, 1st Baron of Cadzow (c. 1250- bef.1336)
- David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert 2nd Baron of Cadzow (c. 1310-1374/1378)
- David Hamilton, 3rd Baron of Cadzow (c. 1333-c. 1392)
- John Hamilton, 4th Baron of Cadzow (d. bef.1410)
- James Hamilton, 5th Baron of Cadzow (d. bef.1441)
Lords Hamilton (1445)
- James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton (d. 1479)
- James Hamilton, 2nd Lord Hamilton (c.1475-1529) (became Earl of Arran in 1503)
Earls of Arran (1503)
Marquesses of Hamilton (1599)
Dukes of Hamilton (1643)
Dukes of Hamilton and Brandon (1711)
- James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton (1658-1712)
- James Douglas-Hamilton, 5th Duke of Hamilton (1703-1743)
- James Douglas-Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton (1724-1758)
- James George Douglas-Hamilton, 7th Duke of Hamilton (1755-1769)
- Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 8th Duke of Hamilton (1756-1799)
- Archibald Douglas-Hamilton, 9th Duke of Hamilton (1740-1819)
- Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton (1767-1852)
- William Alexander Anthony Archibald Douglas-Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton (1811-1863)
- William Alexander Louis Stephen Douglas-Hamilton, 12th Duke of Hamilton, 8th Earl of Selkirk (1845-1895)
- Alfred Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 13th Duke of Hamilton, 9th Earl of Selkirk (1862-1940)
- Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton (1903-1973)
- Angus Alan Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton (b. 1938)
The current heir to the title is Alexander Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale (born 1978)
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