Lower Canada Rebellion
Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838
The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. Together with the simultaneous Upper Canada Rebellion in the neighbouring colony of Upper Canada, it formed part of the Rebellions of 1837.
However, the rebellion of Lower Canada continued in 1838 and is often called Les rébellions de 1837-38 in Quebec. Indeed, a first armed conflict occurred in 1837 when the 26 leaders of the Patriote movement chose to resist their arrest by the British army of John Colborne. In 1838, two major armed conflicts occurred when groups of Lower Canadian Patriotes crossed the American border in an attempt to invade Lower Canada and Upper Canada, drive the British army out and establish independent republics.
These events are often misreported, which moves the attention away from three decades of political battles between the Parti patriote of Louis-Joseph Papineau, which was seeking responsible government for the colony, and the unelected British executive and legislative bodies in the former French colony, which was dominated by a small group known as the Chateau Clique, the equivalent of the Family Compact in Upper Canada.
The movement for reform took shape in a period of economic disenfranchisement of the French-speaking majority. In banking, the timber trade, and transportation, Anglophones were disproportionately represented (for example, Anglophones accounted for 5% of the population of Rimouski in 1842, but 50% of the businessmen). At the same time, many among the increasingly Anglophone business elite were pushing for a union of Upper and Lower Canada, a plan favoured by the British-appointed governor, George Ramsey, Earl of Dalhousie. The reaction was a growing sense of nationalism among the French-speaking majority, which solidified into the Parti canadien, later called the Parti patriote.
Reformer Louis-Joseph Papineau was elected speaker of the colonial assembly in 1815. The assembly, while elected, had little power; its decisions could be vetoed by a legislative council and governor appointed by the British government. Dalhousie and Papineau were soon at odds over the issue of uniting the Canadas, and Dalhousie forced an election in 1827 rather than accept Papineau as speaker. Sympathizers to the reform movement in England had Dalhousie forced from his position and reappointed to India. Still, the legislative council and the assembly were not able to reach a compromise, and by 1834, the assembly had passed the Ninety-Two Resolutions, outlining its grievances against the legislative council. At that point, the Patriote movement was supported by an overwhelming majority of the population in all origins.
Later in 1834 the Parti Patriote swept the election with more than three-quarters of the popular vote. However, the reformers in Lower Canada were divided over several issues. A moderate reformer named John Neilson had quit the party in 1830 and joined the Constitutional Association 4 years later. Papineau's anti-clerical position alienated reformers in the Catholic Church, and his support for secular rather than religious schools made him a powerful enemy in Bishop Jean-Jacques Lartigue. Lartigue called on all Catholics to reject the reform movement and support the authorities, forcing many to choose between their religion and their political convictions.
However, Papineau continued to push for reform. He petitioned the British government to bring about reform, but in March of 1837 the government of Lord Russell rejected all of Papineau's requests. Papineau then organized protests and assemblies, and eventually approved the paramilitary Société des Fils de la Liberté during the Assemblée des Six-Comtés.
In November of 1837, Lord Gosford, governor of Lower Canada, ordered the arrest of 26 Patriote leaders. This marked the beginning of the armed rebellion as many leaders chose to resist arrest or try to escape by crossing the US border.
The Patriotes were caught by surprise before there had been any serious organization. Papineau escaped to the United States, but the rebels set themselves up in the countryside, and defeated a British force at St. Denis on November 23. However, the British troops quickly crushed the completely disorganized rebels. The rebels were defeated at Saint-Charles on November 25 and at Saint-Eustache on December 14. Saint-Eustache was then burned to the ground.
When news of the arrest of the Patriote leaders reached Upper Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie launched an armed rebellion in December of 1837. While this revolt was quickly put down, the rebellion in Lower Canada continued into the following year. Leaders who had escaped across the border into the United States raided Lower Canada in February of 1838, and a second revolt began at Beauharnois in November of the same year. This too was crushed by the British.
Meawhile, Britain had dispatched Lord Durham to investigate the cause of the rebellion. His report recommended that the Canadas be united into one colony (the Province of Canada) so as to assimilate the French-speaking Canadiens into the culture of the British Empire. However, he recommended acceding to the rebels' grievances by granting responsible government to the new colony.
The rebellion of the Patriotes Canadiens of Lower Canada is often seen as the example of what could have happened to America if the American Revolutionary War had failed. Following the military defeat of the Patriotes, Lower Canada was merged with Upper Canada under the Union Act and the Canadiens became a minority in the new political entity. Eight years after the Union, a responsible government was set up in the united Canada. The great instability of this new regime eventually led to another major constitutional change in 1867.
The rebellion is commemorated in Quebec by a public holiday, the Journée nationale des patriotes, celebrated on the same day that Canada celebrates Victoria Day.
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