- For other uses, see Peru (disambiguation)
The Republic of Perú (Spanish: Perú; Quechua, Aymara: Piruw) is a country in western South America, bordering with Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Peru is rich in cultural anthropology, and is well-known as the cradle of the Inca empire.
Main article: History of Peru
Before the Spanish arrived, Peru was home to various Pre-Inca cultures and later, to the Inca Empire. Francisco Pizarro landed on the Peruvian coast in 1532, and by the end of the 1530s Peru became a Viceroyalty and a major source of gold and silver for the Spanish Empire. Peru declared its independence from Spain on July 28, 1821 thanks to an alliance between the Argentine army of Jose de San Martin, and the Neogranadin army of Simon Bolivar. Between 1879 to 1883 Peru and Bolivia made an alliance and fought against Chile in the War of the Pacific.
Main article: Politics of Peru
The current president is Alejandro Toledo, leader of Perú Posible. This governing party is, with 45 seats, the largest in the 120-seat parliament.
The second and third largest parties are in opposition; respectively Partido Aprista Peruano (short: Apra, 28 seats) and Unidad Nacional (17 seats), which is led by Lourdes Flores Nano.
Main article: Regions of Peru
Peru's territory, under Law No. 27867 of 16 November 2002, is divided in 26 regions:
Amazonas, Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, El Callao, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima Metropolitana, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, San Martín, Puno, Tacna, Tumbes, and Ucayali.
Main article: Geography of Peru
Map of Peru
Peru is located in Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador. It also shares borders with Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia.
The western coastal plains (costa) are separated from the eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) by the high and rugged Andes in center (sierra). On the border with Bolivia lies Lake Titicaca, the worlds highest navigable lake at 3821 m.
Main article: Economy of Peru
The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the Fujimori government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Niño's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Niño and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Lima did manage to complete negotiations for an Extended Fund Facility with the IMF in June 1999, although it subsequently had to renegotiate the targets. Pressure on spending is growing in the run-up to the 2000 elections. Nevertheless, improved commodity prices and the recovery of the fishing sector should help drive GDP growth above the 5% mark in 2000.
Main article: Demographics of Peru
Main article: Culture of Peru
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