Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune.
The noun Roman means a citizen of Rome. The adjective Roman means pertaining or related to Rome. The name Romans in historical texts often refers to the three main epochs of ancient Rome:
- Roman Kingdom — 753 BC to 509 BC — there were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic.
- Roman Republic — 509 BC to 44 BC — traditionally lasted as a representative government of Rome and its territories from 509 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, typically placed at 44 BC or 27 BC
- Roman Empire — 44 BC to AD 476 — conventionally used to describe the Roman state in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Caesar Augustus
- Byzantine Empire — "Eastern Roman Empire" 330 to 1453 — the eastern section of the Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople (modern Istanbul), which remained in existence after the fall of Rome in the 5th century.
- Holy Roman Empire — c. 900 to 1806 — political conglomeration of lands in western and central Europe in the Middle Ages.
- Rome — is the capital city of Italy. It is located on the Tiber river, in the central part of the country near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50'N, 12°15'E. The Vatican City, located in an enclave within Rome, is the seat of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church (see also under Roman Catholicism). Rome was the seat of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire.
- Roman Emperors — list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire.
- Roman hills — Seven hills of ancient Rome — east of the Tiber form the heart of Rome.
- Roman law — the legal system of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, from its earliest days to the time of the Eastern Roman Empire, even to the time of the Emperor Justinian I after the fall of Rome itself.
- Roman mythology — Rooted in Greek mythology. Roman poets borrowed from Greek models in the later part of the Republic, the Romans had no stories about their gods equivalent to the Titanomachy or the seduction of Zeus by Hera.
- Roman legion — the basic military unit of ancient Rome. It consisted of about 5,000 to 6,000 (later 8000) infantry soldiers and several hundred cavalrymen.
- Roman Triumph — ceremony of the ancient Rome to publicly honor the military commander (Dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaigns. Only men of senatorial or consular rank could perform a triumph and be a triumphator.
Language and numbers
- Latin language — language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium.
- Roman alphabet (Latin alphabet) — the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans.
- Roman numerals — numeral system originating in ancient Rome. It is based on certain letters which are given value.
- Roman calendar — changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire.
- Roman architecture — adopted external language of classical Greek architecture for Rome's own purposes, which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new architectural style. The two styles are often considered one body of classical architecture.
- Roman road — as a military, commercial, and political expedient, became adept at constructing long straight roads and were essential for the growth of their empire.
- Roman Colosseum — originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater, is an amphitheater in Rome, capable of seating 45,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat.
- Roman villa — country houses, though suburban villas on the edge of cities were known), such as the late Republican villas that encroached on the Campus Martius then on the edge of Rome.
- Roman invasion of Britain — Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history.
- Roman surface — self-intersecting immersion of the real projective plane into three-dimensional space, with an unusually high degree of symmetry.
Roman is a family of typographic fonts, the most famous and common of which is Times New Roman.
- Roman Catholic Church — largest of the Christian churches that profess the Catholic faith.
- Roman Missal — book containing all the fixed and changeable prayers and readings for the conduct of Roman Catholic Masses.
- Roman or Romans is the name or part of the name of several communes in France:
- Roman, in the Eure département
- Romans, in the Ain département
- Romans, in the Deux-Sèvres département
- Romans-sur-Isère, in the Drôme département
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