Berry invented rock and roll in 1955. Berry was a black
man playing black music. But times had changed: white
kids were listening to rhythm and blues throughout the
Northeast, and white musicians were playing rhythm and
blues side to side with country music. The music industry
soon understood that there was a white market for black
music and social prejudice, racial barriers, could nothing
against the forces of capitalism. Rock and roll was an
overnight success. The music industry promoted white idols
such as Elvis Presley, but the real heroes were the likes
of Chuck Berry, who better symbolize the synergy between
the performer and the audience. The black rockers, and
a few white rockers, epitomized the youth's rebellious
mood, their need for a soundtrack to their dreams of anticonformism.
Their impact was long lasting, but their careers were
short lived. For one reason or another, they all stopped
recording after a brief time. Rock and roll was inherited
by white singers, such as Presley, who often performed
songs composed by obscure black musicians. White rockers
became gentler and gentler, thereby drowning rock and
roll's very reason to exist. Buddy Holly was the foremost
white rocker of the late Fifties, while cross-pollination
with country music led to the vocal harmonies of the Everly
Brothers and to the instrumental rock of Duan Eddy.
kids' malaise returned, with a much taller wave, when
folksingers started singing about the problems of the
system. Kids who had not identified with Woody Guthrie's
stories of poor people, identified immediately with folksingers
singing about the Vietnam war and civil rights. Bob Dylan
was arguably the most influential musician of the era.
He led the charge against the Establishment with simple
songs and poetic lyrics. A generation believed in him
and followed his dreams. Music became the expression of
the same time, the story of commercial rock music took
a bizarre turn when it hit the coast of California: the
Beach Boys invented surf music. Surf music was just rock
and roll music, but with a spin: very sophisticated vocal
harmonies. California had its own ideas about what rock
and roll should be: a music for having fun at the beaches
and at the parties. The Beach Boys' vocal harmonies, a
natural bridge between rockers and doo-wop, turned out
to be a fantastic delivery vehicle for the melodic aspect
of rock and roll, that black musicians usually buried
in their emphatic shouting.
times were ripe for change, but a catalyst was still needed.
changed the story of rock music forever. Mersey-beat came
out of nowhere, but it came with the power of history.
Britain had had a lousy music scene throughout the early
Sixties. Mainly, British rockers were mimicking Presley.
Mainstream Britain did not identify with rock and roll,
was not amused by their "rebel" attitudes, did
not enjoy their frenzy rhythm. To a large extent, though,
the seeds had already been planted. Britain had an underground
before America did: the blues clubs. Throughout the Fifties,
blues clubs flourished all over England. London was the
epicenter, but every major English city had its own doses
of weekly blues. Unlike their rock counterparts, who were
mere imitators, the British blues musicians were true
innovators: in their hands, blues became something else.
They subjected blues to a metamorphosis that turned it
into a "white" music: they emphasized the epic
refrains of the call and response, they sped up Chicago's
rhythm guitars, they smoothed down the vocal delivery
to make it sound more operatic, they flexed the choruses,
enhanced the organ arrangements, added vocal harmony.
In a few years, British blues musicians were playing something
that was as deeply felt as the American blues, but had
a driving power that no other music on Earth had.
the early Sixties veterans of that scene, or disciples
of that scene, led to the formation of bands such as the
Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds and the Animals. The Rolling
Stones became "the" sensation in London and
went on to record the most successful singles of the era.
The Yardbirds were the most experimental of them all,
and became the training ground for three of the greatest
guitarists ever: Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck and Jimi Page.
From their ashes two blues bands were born, the Cream
and the Led Zeppelin, that in a few years will revolutionize
rock music again.
did not have a great underground scene but had a more
commercial brand of rock bands. The producer George Martin
was instrumental in creating the whole phenomenon, with
both Gerry And The Pacemakers and the Beatles, the band
that went on to achieve world-wide success. The smiling
faces of the Liverpool kids were in stark contrast with
the underground club's angry blues animals. But the two
complemented each other. "Beatlemania" stole
the momentum from the blues scene and understood how to
turn that music into a mass-media attraction. Rock music
as a major business was born.
most influential bands of the second generation were the
Kinks and the Who. Both went on to record concept albums
and "rock operas" that paraphrased the British
operetta at the sound of rock music. While Kinks were
still proponents of melodic rock, the Who's manically
amplified guitars were already pointing towards a noisier
and less gentle future. The Rolling Stones, the Kinks
and the Who represent the triad of British rock bands
of the mid 1960s that would influence entire generations
of rock bands for decades. The Who were composing autobiographical
songs of the angry and frustrated urban youth. The Rolling
Stones were composing autobiographical songs of the decadent
punks of the working class. The Kinks were composing realistic
vignettes of ordinary life in bourgeois England. The three
together provide a complete picture of the time.
and Led Zeppelin upped the ante when they started playing
very loud blues. Cream's lengthy solos and Led Zeppelin's
fast riffs created the epitome of "hard rock".
impact of British electricity on the American scene was
equivalent to an earthquake. Kids embraced electric guitars
in every garage of the United States and started playing
blues music with a vengeance.
the East Coast it was Dylan again who led the charge.
His first electric performances were met with disappointment
by his fans, but soon "folk-rock" boomed with
the hits of the Byrds and Simon And Garfunkel.
psychedelic movement that had been growing across the
country somehow merged with the wave of electric rockers
and the protest movement. They became one both in New
York and in San Francisco. The Velvet Underground and
the Fugs turned rock and roll into an intellectual operation.
the West Coast both San Francisco and Los Angeles reacted
to the boom of rock and roll in typically eccentric manners.
San Francisco, that was becoming the mecca of the hippies,
begat "acid-rock", and Los Angeles, whose milieu
had produced countless literary and cinematic misfits,
begat Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart, two of the most
influential musicians of the century. Zappa and Beefheart
recorded some of the most experimental records ever and
turned rock and roll into a major, serious art. San Francisco's
bands, led by the Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful
Dead, endorsed complex harmony and improvised jams, thereby
moving rock music towards the intellectual excesses of
jazz music. Blue Cheer and Quicksilver laid the foundations
rock was spreading across the country, and spilling over
into Britain. Soon America produced the Doors and England
produced the Pink Floyd, two bands whose influence will
be gigantic. Texas psychedelia went unnoticed, but bands
like Red Crayola were far ahead of their time. Detroit
was also left out of the main loop, but nonetheless the
MC5 and the Stooges helped move rock music one notch up
the ladder of noise.
boom of rock music in the United States helped resurrect
the blues. Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin became stars,
while countless white blues musicians flooded the clubs
of Chicago and San Francisco. The Band, Creedence Clearwater
Revival and the Doobie Brothers reached new peaks in the
revisitation of traditional white and black music. In
the south this revival movement will lead to the boom
of "southern rock" and the likes of the Allman
Brothers and Lynyrd Skynyrd.
music was still a Nashville monopoly, but several artists
were merging it with eastern meditation, jazz improvisation
and rock's freedom. Sandy Bull, Robbie Basho and John
Fahey were playing long instrumental tracks that easily
rank with the most ambitious pieces of the avantgarde.
the meantime, black music was going through a metamorphosis
of its own. Soul music turned into a form of party music
with Tamla Motown's acts such as the Supremes, and rhythm
and blues mutated in a feverish genre called "funk"
for obscene performers such as James Brown.
Britain, rock music took more of a European feel with
the underground movement that was born out of psychedelic
clubs. Canterbury became the center of the most experimental
school of rock music. The Soft Machine were the most important
band of the period, lending rock music a jazz flavor that
would inspire "progressive-rock". Among the
eccentric and creative musicians that grew up in the Soft
Machine were Robert Wyatt, David Aellen, and Kevin Ayers.
Their legacy can be seen in later Canterbury bands such
as Henry Cow, no less creative and improvisational.
took away rock's energy and replaced it with a brain.
Traffic, Jethro Tull, Family and later Roxy Music developed
a brand of soul-rock that had little in common with soul
or rock and roll: long, convoluted jams, jazz accents,
and baroque arrangements derailed the song format. King
Crimson, Colosseum, Van Der Graaf Generator, early Genesis,
Yes and started playing ever more complex, theatrical
and hermetic pieces. Arrangements became more and more
complex, insturmentalists become more and more skilled.
Electronic instruments were employed frequently. Bonzo
Dog Doo Dah Band, Third Ear Band and Hawkwind created
genres that at the time had no name (decadent cabaret,
world-music and psychedelic hard rock).
paradigm soon spilled into continental Europe, that gave
its first major rock acts: Magma, Art Zoyd, Univers Zero.
Britain's folksingers sounded more like French intellectuals
than oldfashioned storytellers. The folk revival of the
Sixties was mainly the creation of a fistful of three
collectives: the Pentangle, the Fairport Convention and
the Incredible String Band. But around them singer songwriters
like Donovan, Cat Stevens, Nick Drake , John Martyn, Syd
Barrett and Van Morrison established new standards for
musical expression of intimate themes.
1960s were the "classic" age of rock music.
The main sub-genres were defined in the 1960s. The paradigm
of rock music as the "alternative" to commercial
pop music was established in the 1960s. Wild experimentation
alloweds rock musicians to explore a range of musical
styles that few musicians had attempted before 1966. Captain
Beefheart and the Velvet Underground also created a different
kind of rock music within rock music, a different paradigm
within the new paradigm, one that will influence alternative
musicians for decades. More than musical giants like Bob
Dylan and Jimi Hendrix, humble musicians like Captain
Beefheart, the Velvet Underground and the Red Crayola
may be the true heroes of the 1960s.
deaths of the Doors' Jim Morrison, of Janis Joplin, of
Jimi Hendrix and countless others, sort of cooled down
the booming phenomenon. After the excesses of the mid
Sixties, a more peaceful way to rock nirvana had already
been proposed by Bob Dylan and others when they rediscovered
country music. And "country-rock" became one
of the fads of the Seventies, yielding successful bands
such as the Eagles. Reggae became a mainstream genre thanks
to Bob Marley. Funk became even more absurd and experimental
with George Clinton's bands. Hard rock begat heavy metal,
that soon became a genre of its own (Blue Oyster Cult,
Kiss, Aerosmith, AC/DC, Rush, Journey, Van Halen). The
Seventies were mostly a quiet age, devoid of the nevrastenic
battage of the Sixties.
the turn of the decade, the main musical phenomenon was
the emergence of a new generation of singer songwriters
that were the direct consequence of the previous generation's
intellectual ambitions. Leonard Cohen, Tim Buckley, Nico,
Lou Reed, Todd Rundgren, Joni Mitchell, Neil Young, Tom
Waits, and the most famous of all, Bruce Springsteen,
established a musical persona that unites the classical
composer and the folksinger.
Britain, the early Seventies saw the proliferation of
hard rock and progressive-rock and their branching into
several sub-genres. British musicians gave rock and roll
an "intellectual" quality that made it the cultural
peer of European cinema and literature. British rock was
dragged down by the same stagnation that afflicted American
rock. The momentum for innovation was rapidly lost and
the new genres created by British musicians either languished
or mutated into commercial phenomena. Musical decadence
led to decadence-rock, personified by dandies David Bowie
and Marc Bolan. Eccentric remnants of progressive-rock
such as Robert Fripp and Peter Gabriel started avantgarde
careers that were to lead to an expanded notion of rock
music. New musicians such as Kate Bush and Mike Oldfield
helped liberate rock music from the classification in
genres and opened the road to more abstract music. But
the single most influential musician was Brian Eno, who
first led Roxy Music to innovate progressive-rock and
then invented ambient music.
neglected at the time, German rock (often referred to
as "kosmische musik") was probably twenty years
ahead of British rock. Kraftwerk, Amon Duul, Tangerine
Dream, Klaus Schulze, Faust, Neu Can made some of the
most important albums of the era, and of the entire history
of rock music. They laid the foundations for popular electronic
music, for modern instrumental rock, even for new age
music and for disco-music.
mid-Seventies were largely a decade of consolidation,
rather than innovation, but two phenomena erupted that
would have a strong impact: disco-music and punk-rock.
Disco-music was the first genre to use electronic instruments
for commercial, mass-scale music. The beat of dance music
would never be the same again. Orchestral arrangements
became as ordinary as a guitar solo. Punk-rock had an
even greater impact, because it came with the emancipation
of the record industry from the "majors". Thousands
of independent record labels promoted underground artists
and soon the music scene was dramatically split between
mainstream rock (descendant of Presley and Beatles) and
alternative rock (descendant of Zappa and Grateful Dead).
Punk-rock per se was fast, loud rock and roll music, but
it quickly became a moniker for all angry music of the
the ashes of decadent acts such as the New York Dolls,
the Ramones made punk-rock more than a sound, they made
it a religion.
York punks were as intellectual as the folksingers of
twenty years before. Patti Smith, Television, Suicide
and Feelies were the main acts of the "new wave".
The new wave was truly a new wave of creativity, that
harked back to the mid Sixties, when bands were competing
Sex Pistols led the prolific British school of punk-rock,
a more socially and politically conscious kind of rebellious
music. Punks were not necessarily angry, anarchic and
suicidal: the Clash and the Fall were punks with a brain.
The number of solitary geniuses grew exponentially and
counted on renaissance men such as Bill Laswell out of
Boston and demented industrial composers such as Foetus
in New York (via Australia).
and roll was born again. Just like in the mid Sixties,
each year yielded scores of brilliant musicians that were
rewriting the canon of rock music. In Britain first came
industrial music, invented by Throbbing Gristle as a hybrid
of avantgarde and rock music, and then dark-punk, whose
main proponents were Joy Division, Siouxsie Sioux, Public
Image Ltd, the Cure, the Killing Joke, the Sisters Of
evolved into "hardcore" and myriads of bands
terrorized New York (Misfits), Boston (Mission Of Burma,
Lemonheads), and above all Washington (Bad Brains, Pussy
Galore, Fugazi). The West Coast had its share of hardcore
violence, but somehow Los Angeles (Black Flag, X) and
San Francisco (Dead Kennedys, Flipper, Camper Van Beethoven)
managed to remain more experimental. So much so that Los
Angeles saw the emergence of a generation of bands with
roots in the "beach-punk" scene but whose sound
was far more complex (Minutemen, Saccharine Trust, Universal
Congress, fIREHOSE ), a school that culminated in the
solo career of Henry Rollins . Australia boasted one of
the most intense scenes, from the early days of the Saints
and Radio Birdman to the later days of the Lubricated
Goat. The southeast became one of the cradles of a melodic
genre that mixed folk-rock and pop (B52's, REM).
whole national scene benefited from the emergence of independent
music recording. Los Angeles nurtured the Paisley Underground
and the cow-punk scene: the Dream Syndicate and the Gun
Club emerged from that creative revival. All sorts of
neo-rock bands roamed New York, notably the Band Of Susans.
Boston gave two of the most influential acts, Dinosaur
Jr and the Pixies, that de facto invented "grunge"
rock. Seattle saw the revival of hard-rock and the boom
of grunge (Nirvana, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam). Chicago witnessed
the birth of Steve Albini's evil genius with the Big Black.
Minneapolis was the real catalyst: the Husker Du and the
Replacements, and later the Soul Asylum, changed the whole
notion of punk-rock and created the premises for a return
to the rock song format with a new impetus. Kentucky was
another surprising center of action: the Squirrel Bait
started a dynasty of convoluted mainly instrumental punk-rock
that would continue with the Slint and the Tortoise.
in the age of punks begat the Butthole Surfers in Texas,
the Flaming Lips in Oklahoma, the Phish in New England
and a whole legion of gurus in New York: Mark Kramer,
Dogbowl, Jarboe, Lida Husik, Azalia Snail. And Mercury
Rev, the whole band demented enough to compete with the
lived on the side, propelled by the occasional success
of the Black Crowes, by the distinguished career of the
Del-Lords and by the phenomenal energy of lesser known
bands such as the Fetchin Bones. Australia's rock school
expanded dramatically and entered the charts, while preserving
artistic merit with bands such as the Church. Most of
the impulse for what was happening actually came from
tiny and far New Zealand, that had nurtured an independent
scene since the days of the Tall Dwarfs, the Clean and
the Chills, a school that would peak with Peter Jefferies's
and Roy Montgomery's ambitious works.
the meantime another street phenomenon of the ghettos,
hip hop, revolutionized the music scene and bands such
as Beastie Boys, Run DMC, Public Enemy crossed over to
the rock audience. Producers such as Tackhead were instrumental
in redefining the concept of "composition".
followed a different course, almost in the opposite direction,
towards simpler and more commercial music. It all started
with the modernist sounds of Ultravox, Wire and XTC, and
their vaguely robotic melodies. Then Japan and Simple
Minds turned that sound into pompous pop songs. And finally
Orchestral Manouvres in the Dark and others created synth-pop,
that typically was pop played on electronic instruments
and sung by a female or gay singer (with a few notable
exceptions). The Depeche Mode and the Pet Shop Boys were
probably the most artistically successful of the many
that climbed the charts. The Irish U2 and the Smiths turned
sharply towards melody. Australia gave the 1980s two of
the towering figures of rock music: Nick Cave, who bridged
Jim Morrison, Tom Waits and gothic rock, and Foetus, who
turned industrial music into the future of classical music.
Nineties continued to see the expansion of alternative
rock, both artistically and commercially. The general
trend of the era was towards more and more abstract music,
music that has lost its original label of dance/party
and foremost, the Nineties were the decade of singer songwriters
who play ever more abstract compositions: female composers
such as Robin Holcomb, Tori Amos, Lisa Germano and Juliana
Hatfield, male composers such as Matthew Sweet, Magnetic
Field, Smog, Beck . Canada had Jane Siberry and Loreena
McKennitt, two of the most conceptual musicians of their
time, until Alanis Morissette emerged as a leader of the
female folksinger movement. Ireland had two of the most
unique voices, Sinead O'Connor and Enya, soon joined by
Iceland's Bjork. In England, only Polly Jean Harvey ranked
with these masters.
was a brief fad propelled by West Coast all-girl punk
bands such as Hole, Babes In Toyland, L7 and Seven Year
music staged a dramatic comeback in Chicago with two of
the most visible acts of the decade: Ministry and Nine
Inch Nails, inspired by older European bands like KMFDM.
New York followed suit with Cop Shoot Cop and Type O Negative,
San Francisco with Neurosis, Steel Pole Bath Tub, Thinking
Fellers Union. Texas with a florid industrial/psychedelic
school that included the Pain Teensm Bedhead, and the
Vas Deferens Organization.
rock came from the sun belt (Lycia, Black Tape For A Blue
Girl) and was never as popular as the northern variant
of industrial music.
sounds still ruled in the aftermath of grunge, and New
York (Unsane, Helmet, Surgery, Monster Magnet) and Los
Angeles (Tool, Stone Temple Pilots, Kyuss, Korn) had their
share of the pie.
was the new trend in dance music. Invented in the Eighties
in Detroit by the triad of disc jockeys Juan Atkins, Kevin
Saunderson and Derrick May, techno crossed the Atlantic
and established itself in England and in the continent
(Front 242), marching hand in hand with the rave scene.
America was left behind (Moby and not much else).
was the place for psychedelic music. It started with the
Liverpool revival of Echo And The Bunnymen and Julian
Cope, then it picked up speed with dream-pop (Cocteau
Twins, the Australian Dead Can Dance, the Norwegian Bel
Canto, and later the formidable triad of Slowdive, Bark
Psychosis and Tindersticks) and with the Scottish noise-pop
bands (Jesus And Mary Chain and Primal Scream ) and finally
reached a climax with the shoegazers (My Bloody Valentine,
Spacemen 3, Loop, Spiritualized, Catherine Wheel), before
folding into a new form of ambient music.
the end of the decade, Britain was awash in Brit-pop,
a media-induced trance of super-melodic pop that spawned
countless "next big things", from Verve to Oasis
to Blur to Suede to Radiohead, the band that finally disposed
of it. But the best in the melodic genre came from humbler
groups, led by girls, like Primitives and Heavenly.
1990s were also the decade of heavy metal, that peaked
in Los Angeles with Metallica, Jane's Addiction, Guns
And Roses, and that soon split into a myriad subgenres
(doom metal, grind-core, death metal, etc) and funk-metal
(Red Hot Chili Peppers and Rage Against The Machine in
Los Angeles, Primus and Faith No More in San Francisco).
Marilyn Manson was the late phenomenon that recharged
was born in Los Angeles in the Eighties, but somehow peaked
in the Nineties elsewhere (Green Day in San Francisco,
Screeching Weasel and Pegboy in Chicago).
Nineties were the decade of intellectual rock, when no
song could be just a melody and a rhythm but had to be
all twisted and deranged. New York leaned towards rhythm
and blues (Jon Spencer Blues Explosion, Soul Coughing,
Royal Trux) and psychedelia (Yo La Tengo ), Boston towards
psychedelia (Galaxie 500, Morphine) and pop (Breeders,
Belly), Seattle towards psychedelia (Sky Cries Mary, Built
To Spill), Los Angeles towards psychedelia (Mazzy Star,
Red Temple Spirits, Medicine, Grant Lee Buffalo), San
Francisco towards folk and country (American Music Club,
Red House Painters), Washington towards punk-rock (Unrest,
Girls Against Boys), Chicago towards punk-rock (Jesus
Lizard) psychedelia (Codeine, Eleventh Dream Day), pop
(Green, Smashing Pumpkins) and country (Uncle Tupelo).
All of them owed something to the humble school of Kentucky,
led by Slint and peaked with Tortoise.
of punk-rock in Texas (Ed Hall), Minneapolis (Cows), Tennessee
(Today Is The Day) kept sending shock-waves around the
Francisco started the vogue for lo-fi pop with Pavement,
which then begat Sebadoh, Guided By Voices, etc.
Southeastern states came up strong with more and more
intelligent sounds (Bitch Magnet, Blind Idiot God, Don
Caballero, Grifters) that eventually peaked in the North
Carolina school (Polvo, Seam).
synthesizers staged a comeback with Jessamine, Magnog,
new styles kept coming literally from everywhere: Rhode
Island (Six Finger Satellite), Arizona ( Calexico), Ohio
( Brainiac), Montana (Silkworm), Michigan (Windy &
kept mutating its variant of psychedelia, that now began
bordering on dissonant avantgarde (Stereolab, Ozric Tentacles,
Pram, Flying Saucer Attack, Porcupine Tree).
Nineties were the age of electronic music, whether in
dance, ambient or noise format. Electronic musicians and
ensembles spread to Belgium (Vidna Obmana), France (Air,
Deep Forest, Lightwave), Germany (Sven Vath, Mo Boma,
Oval, Mouse On Mars, Air Liquide), Canada (Skinny Puppy,
Front Line Assembly, Delerium, Vampire Rodents, Trance
Mission), Scandinavia, and especially Japan (Zeni Geva,
Boredoms, Merzbow, the triad of noise). Britain's revitalized
ambient scene yielded Orb, Main, Rapoon, Autechre.
dance music was far more successful (creatively speaking)
than its rock bands: Madchester (Stone Roses), rave (Saint
Etienne), transglobal dance (Banco De Gaia, Loop Guru,
Transglobal Underground, TUU) ambient house (Orbital,
Future Sound Of London, Aphex Twins, Mu-ziq), jungle (Goldie,
Squarepusher, Propellerheads), trip-hop (Portishead, Tricky),
and plain techno (Meat Beat Manifesto, Prodigy, Chemical
Brothers) artists redefined compositional processes and
cross-bred countless genres.
music and grindcore somehow merged and spawned terrifying
sounds in the albums of Techno Animal and Godflesh. The
Irish Cranberries and the Scottish Belle And Sebastian
are among the revelations of the end of the decade. Australia
still boasts impressive ensembles, and in particular one
of the most important instrumental bands, Dirty 3.
1990s' boom of singer songwriters will continue throughout
the decade. Among the leaders of influential bands, several
will continue offering serious music on their own: Natalie
Merchant, Kristin Hersh, Bob Mould, Frank Black, Paul
Westerberg, Mark Eitzel, Scott Weiland, Chris Cornell,
and, greatest of them all, Mark Lanegan. Freedy Johnston,
Vic Chestnutt, Peter Himmelman, My Dad Is Dead, Mountain
Goats are among the new voices of the decade, each eccentric
in his own way. And the ranks seemed to increase towards
the turn of the century: Jeff Buckley, Sparklehorse, Elliott
Smith, Richard Buckner, Ben Harper, Joe Henry, Songs:Ohia,
Damien Jurado, Pedro The Lion, etc.
female artists, Jarboe, Azalia Snail and Lida Husik were
heavily influenced by psychedelia. Cat Power, Beth Hart,
Neko Case, Amy Denio, Heather Duby, Edith Frost, Shannon
Wright are among the experimental artists to emerge in
the late 1990s. Liz Phair, Sheryl Crow, Fiona Apple, Lili
Haydn represent the commercial aspect of the movement,
which peaked with Mariah Carey's innumerable hits.